The phalanx relies too heavily … The Romans switched to the maniple system, which deployed smaller units in a checkerboard and was called a "phalanx with joints." 2 @Anixx It did not. ("Spatha", IIRC.) ._1PeZajQI0Wm8P3B45yshR{fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-actionIcon)}._1PeZajQI0Wm8P3B45yshR._3axV0unm-cpsxoKWYwKh2x{fill:#ea0027} So did a horse archer. As to the question of legion vs. phalanx: a legion with the manipular system would be very difficult to defeat a phalanx, assuming even terrain, but his is assuming that the standard manipular doctrine is played out: first wave, then second wave, in head on fight. Roman legion vs Macedonian phalanx (Macedonian wars)Battle of Pydna 168 BC and battle of Cynoscephalae 197 BC Support new videos from Epimetheus on Patreon! The one which didn't show was that the legions were usually better trained. Men to either force the other side to turn, in which case the phalanx could heavy cavalry. Like /u/biglearningcurve said, the hasta was much shorter than the Macedonian sarissa, and it wasn't until during and after the Punic Wars that Rome faced the large, Hellenistic phalanx armies of Macedon, Greece, and the Seleucid Empire. After Pyrrhus’ invasion, the Romans fought titanic wars … In times of emergency, the consular armies would be double strength each being 40,000. But, they were never 1. hoplites also … into hoplite formations, but used, generally, as skirmishers. The Romans at one time had used standards that had a handful of straw tied to the top where the eagle was later. Definitely the Great Battles of History! /*# sourceMappingURL=*/. weapons on an organic basis. They would go on to be replaced … If he moved too much, you would loose your protection. More soldiers would then squeeze past and do it again until they were close enough for the gladius. That meant phalanxes were more restricted in the ground they could traverse. If I'm reading this correctly the cohort did not become a true battle unit untill after the Greeks were conquored. The Roman legions utilized a more flexible battlefield strategy, with smaller units able to move independently. Out and back, a style suited for Ancient History Encyclopedia. Roman methods succeded gainst the phalanx when circumstances caused the phalanx to break formation, at least temporarily. What the Macedonians perfected was the combination of extra-heavy phalanxes with I'm just wondering how that scenario would play out. Basically, every two legions were backed up by ala troops -auxiliaries with a 1 to 5 ratio of cavalry to infantry. Remember, half of your body was being protected by the men to your right. The Roman soldiers at first were forced backwards but they rapidly improvised by retreating to uneven ground and organized successful counter attacks into the gaps in the Macedonian formation caused by the unevenness. showers of javelins still less. The Romans learned something of catapults from the Greeks and refined those leassons. A makedonian army can be amazing in the hands of a good commander, but if you need to be much more intuitive than with a roman army. A consular army camp was laid out in a square about 700 yards on a side. Initially adopting a hoplite style phalanx due to influence from Southern Italian Hellenic colonies, … Phalanxes were horrifically slow to reposition on the battlefield, and could never mount an attack that their opponents could not refuse. When the phalanx got disrupted or broken up, the individual soldiers had to fight one- on - one. The numbers in a maniple of these were 120, 120, 120 and 60 respectively. The cavalry was the manuever element. The titanic struggle between Rome and Carthage had prevented the Roman's from pursuing a policy of all out war against the Greeks. I think a better comparison would be the Roman legion against the armies of Phillip or Alexander. "some contemporary descriptions of legions in The roman victory in the battle of Cynoscephalae ( 197 BC ) marked the end of the second macedonian war between Rome and Philip V, king of Macedon. needed to close with their opponents to fight them. as anvils to their cavalry's hammers. After suffering a series of defeats culminating in the surrender of an ent… You can't just march a phalanx towards a roman army and beat them head on. That show used the "Total War" game engine that many people are referring to in this thread. They began as formations used by citizen-militaries. That would be the apogee of the fight because that first shock would leave many of the Gaullic swords bent sideways making them harder to use even not considering the difficulty of using them in close quarters. From Maniple to Cohort. At contact, the Gaullic warriors would make a violent downward cut with their long cutting swords onto the top edges of the Roman shields. Horses don't like to run into ranks of pointy metal. Web. Legion: made up of 10 cohorts; Field army: a grouping of several legions and auxiliary cohorts ; Equites: Each legion was supported by 300 cavalry (equites), sub-divided into ten turmae; Auxilia and velites: allied contingents, … The Macedonian cavalry was good, but limited. In contrast, a phalanx only really works when the entire army is in one cohesive formation. 90% Upvoted. Each maniple had at least one centurion. "At least in the earlier period, the throwing spears were also useful, on occasion, as spears. Press J to jump to the feed. IIRC, the Macedonians used their massed pike infantry formation on the Romans at the battle of Pidna in 168 BC. professional rather than militia, but given their weapons, they couldn't ISBN: 9781351273626. The two terms aren’t exactly comparable. Well, if you want a good look at the Romans maniple system fighting phalanxes, I would suggest that you read (primary source wise) Polybius as opposed to Caesar (here is a link). View: 875. So in battle, the phalanx would draw up in a line while the Romans had a [Checkerboard formation] ( When fighting in uneven terrain, the big cohesive phalanx would tend to break up and the hoplites would lose most of their effectiveness. Fairly Let's say the Romans breached the city gate(s) and/or penetrated some of the walls. Actually, the earliest known Roman military used phalanxes. The phalanx describes a tactical formation of soldiers whereas a Roman legion is more of an administrative unit, roughly comparable to modern “divisions”. I believe the legion I Italica--under Nero -- began as a phalanx only formation which reverted to a conventional legion. Have you watched Time Commanders on YouTube? Roman tactical organization originated in types of fighting the Phalanx was never used for. The successors tended to ignore this, devoting all of their energy (following the death in battle of Antigonus I Monophthalmus, who had a pretty damn good understanding of Alexander's tactical principles) to boosting the size of the phalanx to simply outnumber their opponents. Phalanx vs Legion : Battle of Cynoscephalae July 2020 The roman victory in the battle of Cynoscephalae ( 197 BC ) marked the end of the second macedonian war between Rome and Philip V, king of Macedon. On a march in unsafe territory, a consular army would clear land to encamp late in the day. That greatly increased the ground on which military operations could be conducted. Keeping the formation intact was the hardest and most important thing in a phalanx. Screening forces of cavalry and archers always needed to be dealt with first when fighting an army with phalanxes, and these needed to be dealt with pretty quickly. Growing up a nerd, he enters the intelligence community, becomes a science fiction author, and now moving into nonfiction. The latter were used to create defense barriers around overnight camps, or on the battlefield. Sort by. It worked best when the phalanx could put several ranks of spears When a phalanx hit rugged ground, it disintegrated. They were anchored by the phalanx, but they integrated light infantry and cavalry into a cohesive and flexible whole. While Alexander’s empire grew and fragmented, The Romans were busy with their arduous task of conquering Italy. Get the infantry onto favorable ground, point it at the enemy, and use the cavalry We have to remember that Alexander’s army only had a small portion of phalangites relative to the rest of the army. Often it was impossible to mass the entire legion/phalanx on the open ground available, so commanders found that allowing independant sub units the legion could effectively manuver around bits of terrain that would disrupt a single mass. ._3Im6OD67aKo33nql4FpSp_{border:1px solid var(--newCommunityTheme-widgetColors-sidebarWidgetBorderColor);border-radius:5px 5px 4px 4px;overflow:visible;word-wrap:break-word;background-color:var(--newCommunityTheme-body);padding:12px}.lnK0-OzG7nLFydTWuXGcY{font-size:10px;font-weight:700;letter-spacing:.5px;line-height:12px;text-transform:uppercase;padding-bottom:4px;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-navIcon)} Although you're right in that the manipular formation allowed Roman legions to easily outflank Macedonian troops (it did next to nothing against hoplites, whom Rome tended to defeat through their use of reserves, rather than tactical maneuvring) I'd like to take a moment to point out that the lynchpin in every successful engagement between Macedonian phalangites and Roman legions during the Macedonian Wars was always a force of Greek hoplite mercenaries or allies positioned at key points in the Roman line. The legions would be composed into two consular armies, one for each consul. I'm reading Caesar's commentaries and I cannot picture how his legions, equipped with swords, could get close enough to their spear-wielding enemy. At least in the earlier period, the throwing spears were also useful, on occasion, as spears. It was standard. "At least in the earlier period, the throwing spears were also useful, on occasion, as spears. "Phalanx vs Legion: Battle of Cynoscephalae." were so expensive to keep and so unusual that the Greek root for the word But a Marian legion (in cohorts) could break itself up into sizable chunks to outmanoeuvre the phalanx. Key to the phalanx is overlapping shields and presenting a uniform front. Each consular army had two legio of soldiers of Roman citizenship status and an equal number of soldiers of Latin ally status. Pidna was essentially the end of The kingdom of Macedonia. In the defense it was common for the front ranks to ram their extra javlins into the ground poiting at the enemy, then step back a couple paces leaving a sort of iron tipped barrier confronting the enemy advance. They were able to abuse the weaknesses of the phalanx in broken or hilly ground to get past the spears, which only pointed forward. would press in too closely for long edged weapons to swing side to side. Aliens: Phalanx was released in paperback and e-book format on February 25, 2020 in the United States and United Kingdom through Titan Books. of the meeting of the Macedonian armies and the Roman armies as "Duck under In Legion versus Phalanx Cole weighs the two fighting forces against each other. The spanish style gladius came late in the Republic. A cohort of Pelignii (Alae) are covering the skirmishers and hold firm to allow the rest of the army to set its positions. Would they ever use their pila to break open a hole in the phalanx and attack there? Category: History. Monuments from the Imperial period show Legionares carrying a entire bundle of spears & long stakes. This allowed a rapid and steady rain of javlins into the enemy front rank. This was comprised of ten maniples of 420 soldiers each. javelins, some heavier." Publisher: Routledge. Is there a book where I could read up on the use and effectiveness of ancient weapons? The smallest unit of the legion was a century -- comprised of about 60-80 men. Crete produced sling men Everybody supplied their own gear and horses. You could use more ranks at once, but trying to use individual lance points as anything but point-forward had to be impossible. Covering the period in which the legion and phalanx clashed (280--168 BC), he looks at each formation in detail--delving into their tactics, arms, and equipment, organization and the deployment. Initially adopting a hoplite style phalanx due to influence from Southern Italian Hellenic colonies, the army eventually transformed into the flexible manipular legion. In the final analysis, better cohesion counted for more than longer spears. Then the Romans would close in before the enemy ranks could pull the javlins from their shields. worse. Carl S RE:Phalanx vs Roman cohort- carl 4/19/2006 8:36:40 AM "some contemporary descriptions of legions in action spoke of them as giant stabbing machines." They were basically light lancers or swordmen, which was not an optimal configuration. So basically they are playing "Rome: Total War" on the show. Aren't the purposes of phalanx formations to keep the enemy at the end of the spear? horse is actually used in Greek names and generally understood as denoting a .FIYolDqalszTnjjNfThfT{max-width:256px;white-space:normal;text-align:center} The Good – Legion vs Phalanx is highly readable. Or, if enemy formations appeared at their I think one other advantage of the Spanish short sword the Romans used was lateral stiffness. What the Phillip and Alexander did was to creat a The romans used turmae (contingents of cavalry recruited from allied tribes) to great extent. The Macedonian phalanx took the concept of cohesive group warfare to another level with the sarissa armed phalangites and under Philip and Alexander, steamrolled every opponent in front of them. The basic unit of the Roman army was the legion, essentially a division of 4,500-5,000 men. PHALANX vs LEGION . After the fall of mighty Carthage in the Second Punic War (202 BC) Rome began to prepare for the invasion of Greece. The legions were invented and perfected over a considerable Romans have good staying power so meeting 2 phalanxes with 1 legio unit will work for a while but only while overall army numbers are similar or the romans have a morale/experience advantage. have been very manueverable. The hastati through triari were heavey infantry with the hastati in front, then the principes and then the triari in the rear. When an engagement occurred, it would always be on the terms of the opposing army. foot spear to follow an agile legionary as he tried to close was already difficult. was that their long swords tended to be impossible to swing in melees. .Rd5g7JmL4Fdk-aZi1-U_V{transition:all .1s linear 0s}._2TMXtA984ePtHXMkOpHNQm{font-size:16px;font-weight:500;line-height:20px;margin-bottom:4px}.CneW1mCG4WJXxJbZl5tzH{border-top:1px solid var(--newRedditTheme-line);margin-top:16px;padding-top:16px}._11ARF4IQO4h3HeKPpPg0xb{transition:all .1s linear 0s;display:none;fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-button);height:16px;width:16px;vertical-align:middle;margin-bottom:2px;margin-left:4px;cursor:pointer}._1I3N-uBrbZH-ywcmCnwv_B:hover ._11ARF4IQO4h3HeKPpPg0xb{display:inline-block}._2IvhQwkgv_7K0Q3R0695Cs{border-radius:4px;border:1px solid var(--newCommunityTheme-line)}._2IvhQwkgv_7K0Q3R0695Cs:focus{outline:none}._1I3N-uBrbZH-ywcmCnwv_B{transition:all .1s linear 0s;border-radius:4px;border:1px solid var(--newCommunityTheme-line)}._1I3N-uBrbZH-ywcmCnwv_B:focus{outline:none}._1I3N-uBrbZH-ywcmCnwv_B.IeceazVNz_gGZfKXub0ak,._1I3N-uBrbZH-ywcmCnwv_B:hover{border:1px solid var(--newCommunityTheme-button)}._35hmSCjPO8OEezK36eUXpk._35hmSCjPO8OEezK36eUXpk._35hmSCjPO8OEezK36eUXpk{margin-top:25px;left:-9px}._3aEIeAgUy9VfJyRPljMNJP._3aEIeAgUy9VfJyRPljMNJP._3aEIeAgUy9VfJyRPljMNJP,._3aEIeAgUy9VfJyRPljMNJP._3aEIeAgUy9VfJyRPljMNJP._3aEIeAgUy9VfJyRPljMNJP:focus-within,._3aEIeAgUy9VfJyRPljMNJP._3aEIeAgUy9VfJyRPljMNJP._3aEIeAgUy9VfJyRPljMNJP:hover{transition:all .1s linear 0s;border:none;padding:8px 8px 0}._25yWxLGH4C6j26OKFx8kD5{display:inline}._2YsVWIEj0doZMxreeY6iDG{font-size:12px;font-weight:400;line-height:16px;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-metaText);display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;padding:4px 6px}._1hFCAcL4_gkyWN0KM96zgg{color:var(--newCommunityTheme-button);margin-right:8px;margin-left:auto;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-errorText)}._1hFCAcL4_gkyWN0KM96zgg,._1dF0IdghIrnqkJiUxfswxd{font-size:12px;font-weight:700;line-height:16px;cursor:pointer;-ms-flex-item-align:end;align-self:flex-end;-webkit-user-select:none;-ms-user-select:none;user-select:none}._1dF0IdghIrnqkJiUxfswxd{color:var(--newCommunityTheme-button)}._3VGrhUu842I3acqBMCoSAq{font-weight:700;color:#ff4500;text-transform:uppercase;margin-right:4px}._3VGrhUu842I3acqBMCoSAq,.edyFgPHILhf5OLH2vk-tk{font-size:12px;line-height:16px}.edyFgPHILhf5OLH2vk-tk{font-weight:400;-ms-flex-preferred-size:100%;flex-basis:100%;margin-bottom:4px;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-metaText)}._19lMIGqzfTPVY3ssqTiZSX._19lMIGqzfTPVY3ssqTiZSX._19lMIGqzfTPVY3ssqTiZSX{margin-top:6px}._19lMIGqzfTPVY3ssqTiZSX._19lMIGqzfTPVY3ssqTiZSX._19lMIGqzfTPVY3ssqTiZSX._3MAHaXXXXi9Xrmc_oMPTdP{margin-top:4px} There also were the velites which may have been called a maniple also. It was a style better Also, unlike hollywood movies, not all fights happened on endless plains with absolutely no natural obstacles - rock formations, marshes, shallow rivers, etc. The Macedonian version of the phalanx used lances grown to almost absurd lengths. The Latin allies brought double the cavalry. The cavalry was composed of a wealthier class than infantry. The monied class of the empire were called equites or knights and that referred back to cavalry. By M32, the Phalanx was already in a state of decay. The Macedonian phalanx took the concept of cohesive group warfare to another level with the sarissa armed phalangites and under Philip and Alexander, steamrolled every opponent in front of them. According to Polybius, the nominal legion strength in the third century BC was 4,200. When the phalanx got disrupted or broken up, the individual soldiers had to fight one- on - one. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts, I have read that the Gauls would attack in a great rush and shout on the Roman front rank. Also note that the Roman soldiers begain carrying several javlins. Defeating phalanxes in the game typically involved positioning sufficient force near their front while moving to threaten their flanks, before charging into their flanks. I've always thought that spears were better than swords even in close combat. The earlier swords were adapted from the typical Greek style of sword. The only example in any one of them where legionarys … Not integrated weapons' reach, with the hoplites encumbered with each others' weapons. I have read the term "maniple" arose from its use as the term "handful". What do you think on Phalanx vs Cohort which was better/stronger? The rugged terrain of Samnium where the war was fought highlighted the lack of manoeuvrability inherent in the phalanx formation which the Romans had inherited from the Etruscans.The main battle troops of the Etruscans and Latins of this period comprised Greek-style hoplite phalanxes, inherited from the original Greek military unit, the phalanx. here's the link: Typical Greek armies always had light infantry attached. It was a well balanced force. Another important flaw in the phalanx army was it's inability to deal with any attacks from the flanks or rear. Certain areas appeared to specialize in certain weapons. The Romans, with their flexible formations would be able to utilize the terrain to get around and inside the reach of the spears, so they could fight one on one. Phalanxes needed auxilliary formations to achieve With Carthage no longer a threat, Rome could now concentrate their powerful war machine against Carthage's former allies. The Century was both usefull for additional battlefield flexibility, and for policing bandits, pirates, or counter insurrgency. That gave legions standoff Each legion had 300 cavalry. At some times, there were distinct weapons, some … a barrage of pila to encumber the phalanxes shield, ducking under the long, heavy spears, and the legionaries were at the hoplites throats, inside their .ehsOqYO6dxn_Pf9Dzwu37{margin-top:0;overflow:visible}._2pFdCpgBihIaYh9DSMWBIu{height:24px}._2pFdCpgBihIaYh9DSMWBIu.uMPgOFYlCc5uvpa2Lbteu{border-radius:2px}._2pFdCpgBihIaYh9DSMWBIu.uMPgOFYlCc5uvpa2Lbteu:focus,._2pFdCpgBihIaYh9DSMWBIu.uMPgOFYlCc5uvpa2Lbteu:hover{background-color:var(--newRedditTheme-navIconFaded10);outline:none}._38GxRFSqSC-Z2VLi5Xzkjy{color:var(--newCommunityTheme-actionIcon)}._2DO72U0b_6CUw3msKGrnnT{border-top:none;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-metaText);cursor:pointer;padding:8px 16px 8px 8px;text-transform:none}._2DO72U0b_6CUw3msKGrnnT:hover{background-color:#0079d3;border:none;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-body);fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-body)} Please read the rules before participating, as we remove all comments which break the rules. a medium length pilum had a chance to do damage. How would it work when defending a city? They could manuever on the phalanxes, which meant that a good general had a chance to break the phalanx up before his legion began fighting it. ground than phalanxes. Page: 248. the phalanx tactics usually involved shoulder to shoulder with the next guy, meaning they were a wrecking ball but they were less manouverable than the legion who was a bit more spread out. .s5ap8yh1b4ZfwxvHizW3f{color:var(--newCommunityTheme-metaText);padding-top:5px}.s5ap8yh1b4ZfwxvHizW3f._19JhaP1slDQqu2XgT3vVS0{color:#ea0027} If I remember correctly Caracalla had at least one phalanx-trained formation (they may have been Greeks). The Macedonian versions benefited from being let usually lighter armed enemies try to penetrate arguably the heaviest infantry formation every. It was a sort of game show wherein a team of non-experts tried to re-fight a historical battle, and two historians provided commentary on how the battles were fought. Basically, they were good at moving forward and that's it. That matches what I've been told in school. Some are always more sucessfull than others in this. But like the phalanx it had group cohesion and fought as a unit, unlike "barbarian" infantry which fought more like a crowd of berserkers. had their stand off javelins, so they could begin the engagment with a heavy barrage outside the range of the phalanx's spears. Despite the war - … share. Indeed, the Romans did the same thing. About 180 scenarios have been published so far, so you can trace the evolution of the Phalanx thru the Hoplites thru the battles of Philip, thru Alexander and the Diodochi, then the same with the roman manipular legion fighting Pyrrhus and Hannibal and the later Phalanx gone to pot, and various Barbarians, thru its Marian reforms to its time with Caesar and later (belisarius and the Mongols). They couldn't do so quickly, and they ._2cHgYGbfV9EZMSThqLt2tx{margin-bottom:16px;border-radius:4px}._3Q7WCNdCi77r0_CKPoDSFY{width:75%;height:24px}._2wgLWvNKnhoJX3DUVT_3F-,._3Q7WCNdCi77r0_CKPoDSFY{background:var(--newCommunityTheme-field);background-size:200%;margin-bottom:16px;border-radius:4px}._2wgLWvNKnhoJX3DUVT_3F-{width:100%;height:46px} However, their back and sides were completely exposed. IIRC, some contemporary descriptions of legions in I recall a summary But, they were far ._1x9diBHPBP-hL1JiwUwJ5J{font-size:14px;font-weight:500;line-height:18px;color:#ff585b;padding-left:3px;padding-right:24px}._2B0OHMLKb9TXNdd9g5Ere-,._1xKxnscCn2PjBiXhorZef4{height:16px;padding-right:4px;vertical-align:top}._1LLqoNXrOsaIkMtOuTBmO5{height:20px;padding-right:8px;vertical-align:bottom}.QB2Yrr8uihZVRhvwrKuMS{height:18px;padding-right:8px;vertical-align:top}._3w_KK8BUvCMkCPWZVsZQn0{font-size:14px;font-weight:500;line-height:18px;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-actionIcon)}._3w_KK8BUvCMkCPWZVsZQn0 ._1LLqoNXrOsaIkMtOuTBmO5,._3w_KK8BUvCMkCPWZVsZQn0 ._2B0OHMLKb9TXNdd9g5Ere-,._3w_KK8BUvCMkCPWZVsZQn0 ._1xKxnscCn2PjBiXhorZef4,._3w_KK8BUvCMkCPWZVsZQn0 .QB2Yrr8uihZVRhvwrKuMS{fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-actionIcon)} This change occured before the end of the Punic wars. If a gap opened the more flexible Roman formations and command structure could take advantage of the momentary 'flanks'. The Romans would be almost unnerved by this experience but would typically stand up to the assault. Recommended By. cavalry. This was a much more maneuverable unit than the huge phalanx that mainly operated at the anvil against which the hammer of Hellenistic heavy cavalry could crash (note- the phalanx of c.200 BC is the post-Alexander phalanx, not the one you see in the Persian Wars, or the Peloponnesian War). In this they stood apart. Most of its vast docking bays were deserted, and the Imperium's inability to replicate its ancient technologies resulted in even minor damage creating signific… As you say the Romans also were able to man & field armys more efffciently than the Greeks. Every soldier would sleep in the exact same part of the camp without deviation. I believe they carried some sort of sword. This was a refinement of how phalanx commanders sometimes used their light auxillarys on the flanks. ._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ{border:1px solid transparent;display:block;padding:0 16px;width:100%;border:1px solid var(--newCommunityTheme-body);border-radius:4px;box-sizing:border-box}._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ:hover{background-color:var(--newCommunityTheme-primaryButtonTintedEighty)}._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ._2FebEA49ReODemDlwzYHSR,._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ:active,._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ:hover{color:var(--newCommunityTheme-bodyText);fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-bodyText)}._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ._2FebEA49ReODemDlwzYHSR,._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ:active{background-color:var(--newCommunityTheme-primaryButtonShadedEighty)}._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ:disabled,._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ[data-disabled],._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ[disabled]{background-color:var(--newCommunityTheme-primaryButtonTintedFifty);color:rgba(var(--newCommunityTheme-bodyText),.5);fill:rgba(var(--newCommunityTheme-bodyText),.5);cursor:not-allowed}._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ:active,._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ:disabled,._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ:hover,._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ[data-disabled],._1zyZUfB30L-DDI98CCLJlQ[disabled]{border:1px solid var(--newCommunityTheme-body)}._1O2i-ToERP3a0i4GSL0QwU,._1uBzAtenMgErKev3G7oXru{display:block;fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-body);height:22px;width:22px}._1O2i-ToERP3a0i4GSL0QwU._2ilDLNSvkCHD3Cs9duy9Q_,._1uBzAtenMgErKev3G7oXru._2ilDLNSvkCHD3Cs9duy9Q_{height:14px;width:14px}._2kBlhw4LJXNnk73IJcwWsT,._1kRJoT0CagEmHsFjl2VT4R{height:24px;padding:0;width:24px}._2kBlhw4LJXNnk73IJcwWsT._2ilDLNSvkCHD3Cs9duy9Q_,._1kRJoT0CagEmHsFjl2VT4R._2ilDLNSvkCHD3Cs9duy9Q_{height:14px;width:14px}._3VgTjAJVNNV7jzlnwY-OFY{font-size:14px;line-height:32px;padding:0 16px}._3VgTjAJVNNV7jzlnwY-OFY,._3VgTjAJVNNV7jzlnwY-OFY._2ilDLNSvkCHD3Cs9duy9Q_{font-weight:700;letter-spacing:.5px;text-transform:uppercase}._3VgTjAJVNNV7jzlnwY-OFY._2ilDLNSvkCHD3Cs9duy9Q_{font-size:12px;line-height:24px;padding:4px 9px 2px;width:100%}._2QmHYFeMADTpuXJtd36LQs{font-size:14px;line-height:32px;padding:0 16px}._2QmHYFeMADTpuXJtd36LQs,._2QmHYFeMADTpuXJtd36LQs._2ilDLNSvkCHD3Cs9duy9Q_{font-weight:700;letter-spacing:.5px;text-transform:uppercase}._2QmHYFeMADTpuXJtd36LQs._2ilDLNSvkCHD3Cs9duy9Q_{font-size:12px;line-height:24px;padding:4px 9px 2px;width:100%}._2QmHYFeMADTpuXJtd36LQs:hover ._31L3r0EWsU0weoMZvEJcUA{display:none}._2QmHYFeMADTpuXJtd36LQs ._31L3r0EWsU0weoMZvEJcUA,._2QmHYFeMADTpuXJtd36LQs:hover ._11Zy7Yp4S1ZArNqhUQ0jZW{display:block}._2QmHYFeMADTpuXJtd36LQs ._11Zy7Yp4S1ZArNqhUQ0jZW{display:none}._2CLbCoThTVSANDpeJGlI6a{width:100%}._2CLbCoThTVSANDpeJGlI6a:hover ._31L3r0EWsU0weoMZvEJcUA{display:none}._2CLbCoThTVSANDpeJGlI6a ._31L3r0EWsU0weoMZvEJcUA,._2CLbCoThTVSANDpeJGlI6a:hover ._11Zy7Yp4S1ZArNqhUQ0jZW{display:block}._2CLbCoThTVSANDpeJGlI6a ._11Zy7Yp4S1ZArNqhUQ0jZW{display:none} In addition there could be auxillia.,, FYEO, For Your Eyes Only and Al Nofi's CIC are all trademarks of Privacy Policy. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. action spoke of them as giant stabbing machines." as flexible as phalanxes. ditto. Shortening the long spear and adding the throwing javlins occured during this same period. But, neither considered these light troops however armed - slings, javelins or bows - as Hoplites of the Macedonian era had very long spears, which were good in a phalanx, but unwieldy in close combat. With two or three javlins each it was the practice to pass the extras from the rear ranks to the front. The spears would point forward. A medium cavalry man, who had to get close enough to stab with a spear or, worse, a sword, would have serious trouble charging the front of an intact